English words and nuances that don't exist in French (2023)

Contents
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. English nuances lacking in French
  • 3. Single French word vs multiple English words with different meanings
  • 4. Single French word vs multiple English words with different usages
  • 5. Single French word vs multiple English words with different formality level
  • 6. English words with no single-word French equivalent

  • Introduction

    There are about six times more words in the English language than in French. As of 2021 the Complete Oxford Dictionary has 600,000 unique words against 100,000 words (totalling 350,000 meanings) for the Grand Robert (the most complete French dictionary). The majority of the people only know from 15,000 to 30,000 words, and even good writers rarely know more than 50,000 words (in a same language). This gives an idea of the huge diversity of vocabulary and nuances available to users of English.

    Languages lacking such a diversity convey the same meanings by using words with a broader sense. The drawback with words having a too broad meaning or too many completely different meanings is that the language can become ambiguous. Imagine a language that did not distinguish bored from annoyed, or a leg from a foot. Well, such languages do exist. Being bored or annoyed are both ennuyé in French, and Japanese has no different word for leg and foot (ashi). Besides, Japanese notoriously possess countless homophones, that is words that sound the same phonetically but are spelt differently and have different meanings. English only has a few of them (e.g. dear vs deer), but most of the time they have a different function (noun, verb, adjective), therefore avoiding confusion.

    French language also has numerous homophones (e.g. vert, vers, ver, verre, vair) because of the silent last consonant and the different ways to write the same vowel sound. Spelling is the key to distinguishing meanings in French. However, like for Chinese characters in Japanese, this only works in writing, leaving oral language ambiguous.

    Being bilingual in French and English, I have often had arguments about which of the two languages was "better" than the other. Native French speakers will always always plead the superiority of the French language, while native English speakers will do the eulogy of their language. It's only natural. People want to believe that the language of their upbringing and culture is the best in the world. Although I grew up with French as my first language, it has long been clear to me that English was richer, more flexible, more nuanced and less ambiguous than French. It hasn't been easy to convince my fellow French speakers of this claim. Their first reaction is usually to deny it or ask me for "proofs". It is in this spirit that I thought of making a list illustrating how English typically has several words, sometimes adding nuances, sometimes affecting the formality level, when French only had one word.

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    For example, English has three words derived from the same Latin root for the French horrible : horrible, horrific, horrendous, each with a slightly different meaning and usage. One could say that "horrific" is closer to atroce in French; but then English also has the word "atrocious".

    The genius of English is to combine the way of making ajectives from nouns and nouns from adjectives using both Romance and Germanic methods. Adjectives can therefore be constructed using the Germanic -ful (e.g. beautiful, doubtful) or the Romance -ous (beauteous, dubious), the Romance -ed (occupied, belated) or the Anglo-Saxon -y (busy, tardy), the Latin -able (probable) or the Germanic -ly (likely). Nouns can be made the Romance way in -tion (facilitation), -ty, (scarcity), -cy (acuracy) and -our (splendour) or with the Old English -ness (preparedness, redness) and -hood (likelihood, childhood), among others. Besides, English uses these with greater flexibility than any other languages. Romance languages rarely created two nouns or two adjectives from the same root with a different ending just to convey an additional nuance. English often does it, as in appearance vs apparition, gracious vs graceful, barbaric vs barbarous.

    A French speaker (or most non-English speakers) could be forgiven for mistakenly using the word 'consummation', which is the act of consummating a marriage (meaning "having sex") instead of 'consumption' (of a product), for there is only one word for either meaning in French, consommation, like in most languages.

    Another interesting example is how English often has distinct adjectives for positive and negative connotations. The French adjective terrible therefore translates either as "terrible" (negative) or" terrific" (positive). The English language has an abundance of near synonyms with different connotations, usages or levels of formality that few other languages possess.

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    It does happen that a language has no word at all for a particular concept. The French word for 'privacy' is intimité. This obviously lack the nuance between the English 'privacy', meaning being away from the observation of others to avoid disturbance (usually alone), and 'intimacy', which means being very close to someone.


    English nuances lacking in French

    The words in bold are in French and listed in alphabetical order.

    Here are just a few examples of the great diversity of near synonyms in English that add nuances. Synonyms that had a French equivalent were removed from the list below (e.g. to spy = épier)

    Verbs

    • annuler : cancel, annul, nullify, rescind, void, overrule...
    • effacer : delete, erase, rub out, efface, clear, wipe...
    • escalader : scale, escalade, climb (up), clamber (up), scramble (up)
    • marcher : walk, pace, march, tramp, trek, hike, troop, stomp, tiptoe, crawl, trespass, swagger, lumber, lurch, pound, shamble, shuffle, stagger, mince, strut, etc.
    • regarder : look, watch, behold, regard, view, gape, gawk, gaze, glare, glance, glimpse, goggle, peek, peep, peer, rubberneck, stare, etc.
    • se promener : amble, stroll, saunter, promenade
    • crier, hurler : shout, yell, scream, screech, squawk, howl, whoop, cry
    • trembler, secouer, tressaillir : dodder, flitter, jar, jerk, jitter, jog, joggle, jolt, quake, quaver, quiver, rock, shake, shimmer, shiver, shudder, teeter, totter, tremble, wobble...
    • agiter, remuer : agitate, flutter, jerk, jiggle, jog, joggle, jolt, jostle, shake, sway, wag, waggle...

    Adjectives, Adverbs

    • antérieur, précédent : former, previous, anterior, preceding
    • suivant : following, next, succeeding
    • cher, coûteux : dear, expensive, costly, pricey
    • dernier, ultime : last, latest, late, latter, rearmost, bottom, ultimate
    • faux : wrong, mistaken, false, fake
    • rapide : brisk, fast, quick, rapid, snappy, swift
    • surpris, déconcerté, perplexe : aghast, baffled, befuddled, bewildered, confounded, confused, disconcerted, perplexed, puzzled, startled, surprised, taken aback
    • étonné, stupéfait : amazed, astonished, astounded, dazed, dazzled, open-mouthed, stunned, stupefied
    • effrayé : afraid, frightened, scared
    • affreux, abominable, atroce, horrible, épouvantable : abominable, appalling, atrocious, awful, dire, dreadful, frightful, ghastly, gruesome, harrowing, hideous, horrible, horrific, horrendous, vile
    • étrange, bizarre : bizarre, eerie, strange, odd, outlandish, queer, uncanny, weird

    Nouns

    • capacité : capacity, capability, ability, skills
    • fil : string, thread, wire, yarn...
    • fou : crazy, mad, foolish, insane, lunatic...
    • maladie : disease, illness, sickness, ailment, malady

    Single French word vs multiple English words with different meanings

    Words with the same root and the same original meaning have sometimes acquired a quite different modern usage, or even a completely different meaning. French usually kept a single word with a broad meaning covering all the usages, whereas English selected or developed another word from the same root, or used both the Germanic and Latin words to differentiate them. For example, it is impossible to say in French "you can tame a lion, but not domesticate it" because the words "tame" and "domesticate" are the same (domestiquer). In a more extreme manner, French language does not make the difference between 'excuse' and 'apology', so for a French speaker it would not make sense to say that someone expect an apology rather than an excuse (or the other way around).

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    • améliorer : enhance, improve, make/get better, ameliorate
    • antenne : aerial, antenna
    • appeler : call, appeal
    • arrêter : stop, quit, arrest
    • blanc : white, blank
    • bureau : desk, office, bureau
    • chasser : hunt, chase
    • conducteur : driver, conductor
    • conduire : drive, lead, conduct
    • connaissance : knowledge, cognizance, acquaintance
    • conseil : advice, council, counsel
    • consommation : consummation, consumption
    • critique : criticism (general usage, usually negative), critic (literary), critique (person who does a critic)
    • début : beginning, début
    • décharger : unload, discharge
    • déranger : disturb, derange
    • domestiquer : domesticate, tame
    • ennui : annoyance, bother ; boredom, ennui
    • essai : try, trial, probe, essay
    • expérience : experience, experiment, experimentation
    • excuse : excuse, apology
    • fête : party, fête
    • fort : strong, forcible, forceful
    • fournir : provide, supply, furnish
    • fusion : merger, fusion
    • garder : keep ; wake, ward, guard
    • gentil : kind, gentle, genteel, gentile
    • guérir : heal, cure
    • histoire : tale, story, history
    • informateur : informant, informer
    • s'identifier : sign in, log in
    • s'inscrire : sign up, register
    • intimité : privacy, intimacy
    • jeter : throw, throw away, dispose ; hurl ; cast ; jettison
    • lecture : reading, lecture
    • manteau : coat, mantel
    • merci : thank, mercy
    • moustache : whisker, moustache
    • phrase : sentence, phrase
    • pleurer, pleurnicher: cry, weep, wail, bawl, sob, whine
    • plume : feather, plume, pen
    • prix : rate, price, prize
    • politique : politics, policy (n.) // political, politic (adj.)
    • portefeuille : wallet, portfolio
    • prévenir : warn, prevent
    • queue : tail, queue, cue
    • régime : diet, regime, regimen
    • répéter : repeat, rehearse
    • (se) retirer : withdraw, retire
    • route : road, route
    • sensuel : sensual, sensuous, sultry
    • signification : meaning, significance
    • soirée : evening, soirée
    • sortie : exit, sortie (as in 'military sortie')
    • souvenir : remembrance, souvenir
    • télécharger : download, upload
    • testament : will, testament, legacy
    • trésor : treasure, treasury, trove, hoard
    • valeur : worth, valour
    • vendre : sell, vend
    • violer : rape, violate
    • voyage : travel, trip, voyage
    • vue : eyesight, sight, view

    English tends to differentiate animal species more accurately than French. For example, different terms are used to distinguish species based on whether they have a tail or not, whether they are land/sea animals, or whether they are diurnal or nocturnal.

    • singe : monkey, ape
    • papillon : butterfly, moth
    • tortue : tortoise, turtle

    Single French word vs multiple English words with different usages

    Some words basically mean the same, but have a different usage. You could say "give money to charity", but the proper usage is "donate". Likewise, the usage is to say that a poem is profound, but a lake is deep.

    • adolescent : adolescent, teenager, teen
    • adulte : adult, grown-up
    • aggraver : worsen, aggravate
    • agrandir : enlarge, aggrandise
    • amoureux : in love, enamoured, amorous
    • anniversaire : birthday, anniversary
    • appartenance belonging, appurtenance
    • avocat : lawyer/attorney, advocate
    • boucle : loop, buckle
    • bouger : move, budge
    • cil : eyelash, cilium
    • calme : calm, quiet
    • chambre : room, chamber
    • chiffre : figure, digit, numeral
    • coeur : heart, core
    • complet : full, complete
    • cru : raw, crude
    • demander : ask, request, query, demand
    • dérangement : disturbance, derangement
    • doigt : digit, finger, toe (doigt de pied)
    • donner : give, donate
    • douloureux : painful, sorrowful, dolorous
    • education : upbringing, education
    • égocentrique : self-centered, egocentric
    • égoïste : selfish, egoistic
    • enfant : child, kid, infant, toddler
    • enragé : enraged, rabid
    • enterrer : bury, entomb, sepulcher, inter
    • entier : whole, entire
    • faible : weak, feeble
    • fidelité : faithfulness, fidelity
    • frontière : border, boundary, frontier
    • gagner : win, earn, gain
    • gentil : kind, gentel
    • gratuit : free, gratuitious
    • habitat : housing, habitat
    • habitation : dwelling, habitation
    • hangar : warehouse, hangar
    • (in)humain (adj.) : (in)human, (in)humane
    • illumination : enlightenment, illumination
    • journal : newspaper, diary, journal
    • judiciaire : judicial (decision, general), judiciary (system)
    • jugement : judgement (general), adjudication (legal)
    • logement : accommodation, housing, lodging
    • magicien : wizard, magician (note that the French sorcier is sorcerer and enchanteur is enchanter)
    • maison : house, home
    • mariage : wedding, marriage
    • marié(e) : bride, groom
    • merveilleux : wonderful, wondrous, marvellous
    • nourrir : feed, nourish
    • occuper : busy, occupy
    • odeur : smell, fragrance, odor
    • ouverture : opening, aperture, overture
    • pâle : pale, pallid
    • plonger : dive, plunge
    • port : harbour, port
    • précoce : early, precocious
    • président : chairman, president
    • proposition : proposition, proposal
    • profond : deep, profound
    • propriétaire : owner, proprietor, landlord/landlady, landowner, renter, householder
    • (se) rappeler : remind, remember, recall
    • réponse : answer, response, reply
    • résumer : sum up; summarize, resume
    • revenu : income, earnings, revenue
    • sac : bag, sack
    • salaire : wage, pay, stipend, salary
    • seul : only, sole, alone, lone, lonely
    • souder : weld, solder
    • silencieux : quiet, silent
    • tardif : late, belated, tardy, tardive
    • tristesse : sorrow, sadness
    • urgence : emergency, urgence
    • vide : empty, void
    • vrai, veritable : true, truthful, veritable, genuine
    • zero : zero, naught, nought, nil, love

    Some words have the same meaning and usage, but carry a different connotation :

    • caprice : whim (neutral), caprice (negative)
    • solitude : solitude (positive, neutral), loneliness (negative)
    • terrible : terrific (positive), terrible (negative)
    • tiède : lukewarm (neutral), tepid (negative)

    Other words express a nuance in size or intensity :

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    • chaud : warm, hot
    • frais : cool, fresh
    • ville : town, city

    Single French word vs multiple English words with different formality level

    Sometimes the extra English word(s) add little or no nuance. In that case the word with a Latin root usually more formal than the one with a Germanic root.

    • aider : help, aid
    • alerte : warning, alert
    • amitié : friendship, amity
    • arme : weapon, arm
    • augmenter : increase, augment
    • avarice : greed, avarice
    • belliqueux : warlike, bellicose
    • cacher : hide, conceal
    • cape : cloak, cape
    • cartographie : mapmaking, cartography
    • céleste : heavenly, celestial
    • cimetière : graveyard, churchyard, burial ground, cemetery
    • comestible : eatable, edible, comestible
    • cravate : neck-tie, cravat
    • dentifrice: toothpaste, dentifrice
    • embouchure : (river) mouth, embouchure
    • facile : easy, facile
    • fantôme : ghost, phantom
    • fiançaille : engagement, betrothal, espousal
    • fraternité : brotherhood, fraternity
    • incroyable : unbelievable, incredible, amazing
    • infatigable : tireless, untiring, indefatigable
    • interdire : forbid, prohibit, interdict
    • interminable : endless, interminable
    • intestin : bowel, gut, intestine
    • irritable : cranky, testy, irritable
    • liberté : freedom, liberty
    • lisible : readable, legible
    • magistral : masterly, magisterial
    • maintenir : keep, hold, maintain
    • humanité : mankind, humanity
    • manteau : coat, overcoat, manteau
    • maternité : motherhood, maternity
    • menace : threat, menace
    • menottes : handcuffs, manacles
    • morose : gloomy, morose
    • orthographe : spelling, orthography
    • pardoner : forgive, pardon
    • partir : leave, depart
    • paternité : fatherhood, paternity
    • permettre : allow, permit
    • piller : plunder, pillage
    • (se) plaindre : bemoan, complain
    • potable : drinkable, drinking, potable
    • probable : likely, probable
    • progéniture : offspring, progeny
    • puissant : mighty, powerful, potent
    • publicité : advertising, advertisement, commercial, publicity
    • rarement : seldom, rarely
    • (se) rassembler : gather, assemble
    • repas : meal, repast
    • répit : break, time-out, respite
    • respirer : breath, respire
    • repousser : push back, repulse
    • rester : stay, remain
    • risible : laughable, risible
    • sainteté : holiness, sanctity
    • signification : meaning, signification
    • sinistre : bleak, dreary, sinister
    • sombre : dark, sombre
    • somnambule : sleepwalker, somnambulist
    • somnolence : drowsiness, somnolence
    • tempête : storm, tempest
    • tombe : grave(stone), tomb(stone)
    • vapeur : steam, vapour
    • visage : face, visage

    English words with no single-word French equivalent

    Some very common words in English cannot be translated by just one word in French and require a phrase or expression instead.

    • healthy (about a person) : en bonne santé
    • cheap : bon marché
    • shallow : peu profond
    • avoidance : the word évitement exists, but is used only in specific case (meaning 'dodging' for cars, or 'avoidance coping' in pyschology) or in Canadian French (e.g. évitement fiscal)
    • comprehensive : complet, global, total, exhaustif. No real equivalent in French. Note that the French word compréhensif means understanding or sympathetic.
    • both/either : les deux/l'un ou l'autre
    • hound : chien de chasse
    • to befriend : se lier d'amitié avec, prendre [qn] sous son aile
    • to hug : serrer [qn] dans ses bras

    Scientific vocabulary

    • calculus (maths) : calcul infinitésimal (ou calcul différentiel et intégral)
    • capacitance (physics) : capacité électrique
    • momentum (physics) : quantité de mouvement
    • velocity (physics) : vecteur vitesse

    Follow up

    Want to add more words to the list ? You can do it on the Eupedia Forum

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    French words that start with Z.
    FrenchEnglish
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    ...
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    M, Nun balcon parfumLatin words: amen, forum
    5 more rows
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    25 Feb 2021

    What is the 1st hardest language to learn? ›

    Across multiple sources, Mandarin Chinese is the number one language listed as the most challenging to learn. The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center puts Mandarin in Category IV, which is the list of the most difficult languages to learn for English speakers.

    What is the 1st hardest language? ›

    1. Mandarin. As mentioned before, Mandarin is unanimously considered the most difficult language to master in the world! Spoken by over a billion people in the world, the language can be extremely difficult for people whose native languages use the Latin writing system.

    What is the longest F word? ›

    [ flok-suh-naw-suh-nahy-hil-uh-pil-uh-fi-key-shuhn ] SHOW IPA.

    What is the 7 hardest language to learn? ›

    7 Most Difficult Languages to Learn for Native English Speakers
    • 1 – Chinese (Mandarin)
    • 2 – Arabic.
    • 3 – Japanese.
    • 4 – Korean.
    • 5 – Hungarian.
    • 6 – Finnish.
    • 7 – Xhosa.
    7 Feb 2020

    What two languages make up 60% of English words? ›

    Over 60 percent of all English words have Greek or Latin roots. In the vocabulary of the sciences and technology, the figure rises to over 90 percent. About 10 percent of the Latin vocabulary has found its way directly into English without an intermediary (usually French).

    How much of English is actually French? ›

    About 45% of the English vocabulary originates from the French language.

    What 3 languages is English made of? ›

    English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French (about 29% of modern English words) and Latin (also about 29%), plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse ...

    What do they call pizza in France? ›

    Pissaladière (French Pizza)

    Why does English borrow so many French words? ›

    Beginning in 1066 A.D., French speakers occupied England. It was the Normans in particular and the dialect they spoke was a different dialect of French. Normans were, in fact, descendants of the Vikings, too. They brought many French words into English, and these words are considered common English words today.

    Why is pizza called pie? ›

    Pizza was first called pie when Italian immigrants arrived in the United States in the late 1800s. Pizza had similarities to a pie – with a crust, sliced triangle portions and its circular shape. Italian-Americans sold and popularized the pizzas, and the exotic dish picked up the English name “tomato pie”.

    Are French letters condoms? ›

    Before the advent of the pill many, varied contraceptive options already existed: from French letters or rubber sheaths (condoms, used by men), to pessaries, contraceptive sponges and douches (used by women).

    Do French say Zed? ›

    The zed pronunciation is older, and it more closely resembles the Greek letter, zeta, from which the English letter is derived. And zed is closer to other languages' spelling and pronunciation of the letter; for instance, the French say zède, German speakers say zet, and Spanish speakers say zeta.

    What accent is é? ›

    É is a variant of E carrying an acute accent; it represents an /e/ carrying the tonic accent.

    What English letter is not in French? ›

    While French does use the Latin (or Roman) alphabet that contains 26 letters, two of those are not native to the French language. Those are the 'K' and the 'W.

    Are there any English words that don't translate? ›

    Here's a list of 10 English phrases that don't translate.
    • Serendipity. This English word refers to the coincidental discovery of beneficial objects or events. ...
    • About to Go Down. Literally, the phrase "go down" just means to descend. ...
    • Tabling an Item. ...
    • Bandwagon. ...
    • Ballpark Figure. ...
    • Insight. ...
    • Cold Turkey. ...
    • Flabbergasted.
    11 Nov 2019

    What is the word impossible in French? ›

    adjective. Qui ne peut être ; ce qui ne se peut faire.

    Does the letter Z exist in French? ›

    The letter 'Z' in French is pronounced like the 'Z' in English: listen. That's simple enough, but there's one twist to the 'Z' in French as it can also be a silent letter. This occurs in almost every instance in which the 'Z' appears at the end of a word.

    Why is w called Double U? ›

    Q: Why is the letter “w” called “double u”? It looks like a “double v” to me. A: The name of the 23rd letter of the English alphabet is “double u” because it was originally written that way in Anglo-Saxon times. As the Oxford English Dictionary explains it, the ancient Roman alphabet did not have a letter “w.”

    What does Ooo Lala mean in French? ›

    a phrase, originally from France, used for showing surprise, admiration, or excitement about something, especially when referring to something that is connected with France or French people, or when something of a sexual nature is involved: Someone actually said "ooh la la" when they saw his new barbecue.

    What does Ooh Lala mean in French? ›

    Oh là là is mostly used for strong emotions, both positive and negative, and roughly translates to 'Oh my God' or 'Wow' in English. It can be used by anyone and everyone in French.

    What is the French equivalent of LMAO? ›

    MDR – Mort de Rire

    It means “dying of laughter” – and while it may have more in common with LMAO or ROFL, it's the most quintessentially French equivalent of typing lol.

    Why can't the French pronounce H? ›

    The letter h is not pronounced in French. This letter is a consonant and it doesn't make any sound. Therefore, words that start with the letter h, such as honneur, hiver, and hier, are pronounced without the sound h.

    Can French people say squirrel? ›

    This is a rare double-banger — not only is it impossible for French people to pronounce (skwee-woo?), but the French word for squirrel – écureuil – is also extremely tough for us foreigners. Luckily for us all, squirrels don't come up in conversations too often.

    Can French people say Hugh? ›

    Hugues is a masculine given name most often found in francophone countries, a variant of the originally Germanic name "Hugo" or " Hugh".
    ...
    Hugues (given name)
    Language(s)French
    Name dayApril 1
    Origin
    MeaningMind, spirit
    Region of originFrance
    4 more rows

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